Housing, the built environment and ICT

This section includes any papers on the specific environments where people with dementia are living, from their own home to custom designed dementia environments. It also includes papers on any form of technologies designed to support people with dementia.

Finding a way: long-term care homes to support dementia.

Faith, V., Rooney, C., Hadjri, K., McAllister, K. and Craig, C.
Proceedings of the ICE-Urban Design and Planning
2015
This paper documents the results of mixed methods PhD study where way finding walks around long term care environments were observed and these observations were supported with conversational semi-structured interviews.
The aim was to examine the role of design of a physical environment in supporting wayfinding for people with dementia. Faith et al. (2015) consider the results within four domains; architectural, interior architecture, personalisation and management and care. Considerable detail is provided within each domain and the authors conclude that the study indicates the need to consider individual experience and approaches to care, and to create a spatial experience that appeals to the senses and creates memorable interactions, arguing that good design must be coupled with quality care.

A Review of Contemporary Work on the Ethics of Ambient Assisted Living Technologies for People with Dementia

Novitzky, P., Smeaton, A.F., Chen, C., Irving, K., Jacquemard, T., O’Brolcha, F., O’Mathuna, D. and Gordijnet, B
Science and Engineering Ethics
2017
This literature review by Notivzky et al. (2017) addresses the ethical issues involved in research and development, clinical experimentation and application of ambient assistive living (AAL) technologies for people with dementia and related stakeholders.
The paper discusses the terminology used and reports on the frequency with which the most ethically relevant terms occurred. The findings are presented relevant to each group of stakeholders. In addition to ethical issues relating to safety, security and privacy, the study highlights further ethical issues including the value of the goals of AAL technologies, the special vulnerability of people with dementia in their private homes, and the complex issue of informed consent from people with dementia.

Views of Caregivers on the Ethics of Assistive Technology Used for Home Surveillance of People Living with Dementia

Mulvenna, M., Hutton, A., Coates, V., Martin, S., Todd, S., Bond, R. and Moorhead, A.
Neuroethics
2017
In this paper, Mulvenna et al. (2017) examine the ethics of using assistive technology such as video surveillance in the homes of people with dementia. The paper sets out the background context to the study and reviews related studies that have been carried out in relation to this topic.
The paper then describes what a video surveillance solution might look like. Using a living lab approach, the study engaged with 2 people with dementia and 22 family caregivers to elicit their views on the use of video surveillance and if these were consistent with the findings reported in the literature. The majority thought that video surveillance was a good or very good idea and the system easy or very easy to use. Ethical principles were evident in the responses of participants, with autonomy presented most frequently, as were some cautious perspectives. The paper concludes that the use of cameras in the home of a person living with dementia where family caregivers could monitor their relative with dementia was supported as useful, ethical and moral providing the right protocol is in place to gain consent, but that some ethical discomfort arises when professional caregivers are involved in caring within the home.

A systematic review of electronic assistive technology within supporting living environments for people with dementia

Daly Lynn, J., Rondón-Sulbarán, J., Quinn, E., Ryan, A., McCormack, B., and Martinet, S.
Dementia: The International Journal of Social Research and Practice.
2017
This is a systematic review conducted by Daly Lynn et al. (2017) which aimed to provide an overview of assistive technologies in use in residential care settings to support people with dementia.
It also set out to provide an overview of the methodologies adopted to assess the impact of such technologies and the extent to which people with dementia were included in studies exploring these technologies. The paper outlines the search strategy, inclusion and exclusion criteria, and the studies selected. A total of 61 studies were included in the review, 23 of which focused on telecare technology interventions in long-term care settings, with a wide range of methodological approaches adopted in the studies. Studies on light therapy, robotic companions, technological solutions to support well-being and leisure, simulated presence therapy, and those relating to orientation and activities of daily living were included in the review. The challenges raised by the technologies are discussed including the varieties of technologies from which to choose as are issues of informed consent.

Technologies to support community-dwelling persons with dementia: a position paper on issues regarding development, usability, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, deployment, and ethics

Meiland, F., Innes, A., Mountain, G., Robinson, L., van der Roest, H., García-Casal, J.A., Gove, D., Thyrian, J.R., Evans, S., Dröes, R.M. and Kelly, F.
JMIR Rehabilitation and Assistive Technologies
2017
Meiland et al. (2017) carried out a review of literature and consulted with experts on the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of assistive and health technology in dementia.
While benefits of these technologies were reported, the authors point to the uncontrolled nature of many studies, urging caution about the results. They found enthusiasm among people with dementia for using assistive technologies to support independence and also for taking part in the design process. People with dementia are able to use new technologies but often need support from carers or health professionals. Ethics featured heavily in the papers reviewed and often this related to the dilemma between autonomy and risk versus privacy and safety. Challenges identified included addressing individual needs and abilities, identifying technology that is most relevant to people with dementia and conducting robust research in the field. The authors detail a series of recommendations and conclude that further research is needed alongside a multi-disciplinary approach to development of a technology deployment strategy.

Night optimised care technology for users needing assisted lifestyles.

AUGUSTO, J., MULVENNA, M., ZHENG, H., WANG, H., MARTIN, S., MCCULLAGH, P., WALLACE, J.
Behaviour and Information Technology
2014

Comparing communal environments using the Assessment Tool for Occupation and Social Engagement: using interactive occupation and social engagement as outcome measures

MORGAN-BROWN, M., CHARD, G., 2014
British Journal of Occupational Therapy
2014

Morgan-Brown and his colleagues have developed and used the Assessment Tool for Occupation and Social Engagement (ATOSE) to evaluate the sitting room experience in two nursing homes for people with dementia in ROI (Morgan-Brown et al 2011a), the levels of social and occ

upational engagement of staff (Morgan-Brown et al. 2011b) and to compare the social engagement and interactive occupation of residents before and after conversion to a household model environment (Morgan-Brown, Newton and Ormerod, 2013Morgan-Brown and Chard, 2014). In the traditionally designed nursing homes, high levels of non-active behaviour and very low levels of social engagement were the norm for people with dementia. Staff were frequently absent from the room and when present spent little time in social engagement or interactive occupation with residents. Conversion to the household model, which included a homemaker permanently allocated to the space, was linked to highly significant changes in the behaviour of residents in both nursing homes. The findings support the hypothesis that providing a household environment provides an opportunity to positively influence the behaviour of the residents with dementia.

An exploration of occupation in nursing home residents with dementia. British Journal of Occupational Therapy (2011 a)

Research Article: Social and Occupational Engagement of Staff in Two Irish Nursing Homes for People with Dementia (2011 b)

Engaging life in two Irish nursing home units for people with dementia: Quantitative comparisons before and after implementing household environments (2013)

Engaging life in two Irish nursing home units for people with dementia: Quantitative comparisons before and after implementing household environments

MORGAN-BROWN, M., NEWTON, R., ORMEROD, M.
Aging & Mental Health
2013

Morgan-Brown and his colleagues have developed and used the Assessment Tool for Occupation and Social Engagement (ATOSE) to evaluate the sitting room experience in two nursing homes for people with dementia in ROI (Morgan-Brown et al 2011a), the levels of social and occ

upational engagement of staff (Morgan-Brown et al. 2011b) and to compare the social engagement and interactive occupation of residents before and after conversion to a household model environment (Morgan-Brown, Newton and Ormerod, 2013Morgan-Brown and Chard, 2014). In the traditionally designed nursing homes, high levels of non-active behaviour and very low levels of social engagement were the norm for people with dementia. Staff were frequently absent from the room and when present spent little time in social engagement or interactive occupation with residents. Conversion to the household model, which included a homemaker permanently allocated to the space, was linked to highly significant changes in the behaviour of residents in both nursing homes. The findings support the hypothesis that providing a household environment provides an opportunity to positively influence the behaviour of the residents with dementia.

 An exploration of occupation in nursing home residents with dementia. British Journal of Occupational Therapy (2011 a)

Research Article: Social and Occupational Engagement of Staff in Two Irish Nursing Homes for People with Dementia (2011 b)

 Comparing communal environments using the Assessment Tool for Occupation and Social Engagement: using interactive occupation and social engagement as outcome measures (2014)

Research Article: Social and Occupational Engagement of Staff in Two Irish Nursing Homes for People with Dementia.

MORGAN-BROWN, M., ORMEROD, M., NEWTON, R., MANLEY, D., FITZPATRICK, M.
Irish Journal of Occupational Therapy
2011

Morgan-Brown and his colleagues have developed and used the Assessment Tool for Occupation and Social Engagement (ATOSE) to evaluate the sitting room experience in two nursing homes for people with dementia in ROI (Morgan-Brown et al 2011a), the levels of social and occ

upational engagement of staff (Morgan-Brown et al. 2011b) and to compare the social engagement and interactive occupation of residents before and after conversion to a household model environment (Morgan-Brown, Newton and Ormerod, 2013Morgan-Brown and Chard, 2014). In the traditionally designed nursing homes, high levels of non-active behaviour and very low levels of social engagement were the norm for people with dementia. Staff were frequently absent from the room and when present spent little time in social engagement or interactive occupation with residents. Conversion to the household model, which included a homemaker permanently allocated to the space, was linked to highly significant changes in the behaviour of residents in both nursing homes. The findings support the hypothesis that providing a household environment provides an opportunity to positively influence the behaviour of the residents with dementia.

 

 An exploration of occupation in nursing home residents with dementia. British Journal of Occupational Therapy (2011 a)

Engaging life in two Irish nursing home units for people with dementia: Quantitative comparisons before and after implementing household environments (2013)

 Comparing communal environments using the Assessment Tool for Occupation and Social Engagement: using interactive occupation and social engagement as outcome measures (2014)

An exploration of occupation in nursing home residents with dementia. British Journal of Occupational Therapy

MORGAN-BROWN, M., ORMEROD, M., NEWTON, R., MANLEY, D.
British Journal of Occupational Therapy
2011

Morgan-Brown and his colleagues have developed and used the Assessment Tool for Occupation and Social Engagement (ATOSE) to evaluate the sitting room experience in two nursing homes for people with dementia in ROI (Morgan-Brown et al 2011a), the levels of social and occ

upational engagement of staff (Morgan-Brown et al. 2011b) and to compare the social engagement and interactive occupation of residents before and after conversion to a household model environment (Morgan-Brown, Newton and Ormerod, 2013; Morgan-Brown and Chard, 2014). In the traditionally designed nursing homes, high levels of non-active behaviour and very low levels of social engagement were the norm for people with dementia. Staff were frequently absent from the room and when present spent little time in social engagement or interactive occupation with residents. Conversion to the household model, which included a homemaker permanently allocated to the space, was linked to highly significant changes in the behaviour of residents in both nursing homes. The findings support the hypothesis that providing a household environment provides an opportunity to positively influence the behaviour of the residents with dementia.

Research Article: Social and Occupational Engagement of Staff in Two Irish Nursing Homes for People with Dementia (2011 b)

Engaging life in two Irish nursing home units for people with dementia: Quantitative comparisons before and after implementing household environments (2013)

 Comparing communal environments using the Assessment Tool for Occupation and Social Engagement: using interactive occupation and social engagement as outcome measures (2014)

Designing dementia nursing and residential care homes

HADJRI, K., FAITH, V., MCMANUS, M.
Journal of Integrated Care
2012

Hadjri et al. (2012) assessed the level of compliance of care homes in NI to dementia design guidelines using a postal questionnaire based on the DSDC Design for Dementia Audit Tool.

The results show that only five essential design criteria were met by all homes and concluded that residential care homes should give more attention to design aspects.