Users may use the search function to find links to journals, books, policy papers and surveys and databases related to dementia in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. Users can search by keyword or theme and then use filters to refine results by content type, year and themes.

An exploration of nursing home managers' knowledge of and attitudes towards the management of pain in residents with dementia

International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 27(12)

Barry et al. (2012) explore the levels of knowledge and attitudes of nursing home managers towards the management of pain in residents with dementia.

While most respondents evidenced a good knowledge of pain experience in residents with dementia, there was little indication that recognised pain assessment or management tools are used, and surprisingly few respondents had received recent training on pain management. The authors identify the need for further research to identify the factors affecting the prescribing of analgesics for people with dementia in care settings.

Community pharmacists and people with dementia: a cross-sectional survey exploring experiences, attitudes, and knowledge of pain and its management

International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 28(10)

Barry et al. (2013) examine the knowledge and experience of community pharmacists in managing pain in people with dementia.

 They found that community pharmacists had a positive person-centred attitude towards people with dementia, a good knowledge of the use of anti-psychotic medications but were uncertain about the difficulties people in the later stages of dementia may have with swallowing and were unsure about pain assessment and management.

Dementia knowledge and attitudes of the general public in Northern Ireland: an analysis of national survey data

International Psychogeriatrics, 24(10)

Mc Parland et al. (2012) explored the knowledge and attitudes of the general public to dementia.

 They found that while there is a reasonable level of knowledge about dementia, the general public hold overwhelmingly negative attitudes towards dementia and that stereotypical, stigmatising views of people with dementia dominate understandings.

Financing Dementia: What money is available, what does dementia need and will the required resources be received?

Alzheimer Society of Ireland

In a later report, Trepel (2012) examines the different ways in which healthcare systems can be financed and resources distributed to those in need of healthcare.

He describes the unique public-private mix of financing health care in ROI, the two-tiered system of healthcare that has evolved, and the implications that this has for dementia care in ROI. Trepel (2010) highlights the absence of a clear budget line for dementia care. With increasing age dependency ratios meaning that fewer resources will be available in the future, he argues that the Irish government needs to make a financial commitment to dementia, guided by the principles of social solidarity, social sustainability and interdependency. To meet the needs of people with dementia and their carers and promote their quality of life, he argues that the “social contract” paid for during the productive years needs to be demonstrably upheld and contractual responsibility of private health insurers recognised.   

An Economic Perspective of Dementia Care in Ireland: Maximising Benefits and Maintaining Cost Efficiency

Alzheimer Society of Ireland

Trepel (2010) examines the international evidence on dementia in relation to prevention, care and cure and considers how the evidence can be used to inform decisions about spending on dementia that will maximise benefits to society and at the same time maximise optimal cost efficiency, and in par

ticular the implications for ROI. He concludes that investing in services and interventions to support carers is essential to achieving cost-effectiveness in dementia care. 

Getting Personal? Making Personal Budgets Work

Lakey, L., Saunders, T.
Alzheimer’s Society (UK)

This report from the Alzheimer’s Society (UK) focuses on the use of personal budgets to meet the government’s personalisation agenda.

It suggests personal budgets offer many benefits for people with dementia and carers but that they are not suitable for everyone, so that other options must be available. Considerable burden was associated with accessing and using direct payments, and attitudes and understandings of health and social care professionals were identified as a barrier. There is a limited market range of services available and insufficient funding was highlighted. Criteria for eligibility were found to be problematic with many people not becoming eligible until a situation reached crisis point.

The report recommends full involvement of people with dementia and their carers in the personal budgets agenda, that personal budgets must not be seen as a cure-all for the social care system, that the market should be fully developed to deliver a range of different types of dementia services, that the personal budgets system should be adapted to meet the particular needs of people with dementia and their carers, that timely and appropriate information for people with dementia and their carers must be provided as well as awareness raising and training for health and social care professionals, and that the system must ensure an improved evidence base on dementia, including pilot sites to evaluate effective models of provision and accurate data on current use of personal budgets.

The Dementia Tax

Alzheimer’s Society
Alzheimer’s Society (UK)

This report was produced by the Alzheimer’s Society (UK) to inform the debate on the funding of care and support for people with dementia.

The report, which follows the Society’s first Dementia Tax report (2008), suggests that people with dementia face the highest costs of care of any group and have to pay the most towards their care to the extent that the authors consider this a ‘Dementia Tax.’ Almost 4,000 people either living with dementia (411) or caring for someone with dementia were surveyed (1% of this population resided in NI). The report primarily focuses on England but has influenced policy development in Wales and NI. Key indicators of a better funding and charging system of care are suggested: people with dementia living at home for longer with better social contact; less people going into hospital and shorter hospital stays; more choice in relation to care at home and in formal care environments; the provision of specialist dementia care in care homes. The report also calls on the government to ensure an open public debate is held on the Dilnot Report (2011), with greater clarity and scrutiny of this report, recognition of the contribution of families to providing care, changes to care regulation, and creating better systems to reward and retain care staff. 

The £20 Billion Question - an inquiry into improving lives through cost effective dementia services

Sharp, S., Saunders, T., O’Brien, N.
All Party Parliamentary Group

This report commissioned by the Alzheimer’s Society (UK) begins by setting the scene for provision of services in a challenging financial climate, making reference to the reduction in NI’s central funding and the likely impact on community care.

The report makes nine recommendations highlighting the need for: better collaboration and integration across dementia care and support systems; sharing expertise between different sectors; early intervention; improved co-ordination, increased use of key workers; better access to training; an increase in rates of diagnosis; better support for carers; sharing of best practice.

Current Practice in the referral of Individuals with suspected dementia for neuro imaging by General Practitioners in Ireland and Wales.

Ciblis, A.S., Butler, M.L., Quinn, C., Clare, L., Bokde, A.L., Mullins, P.G. and McNulty, J.P.
PLoS One
In this survey approximately 2500 questionnaires were distributed to GPss in Ireland and Wales with a response rate of 17.9% and 17.6% respectively.
Ciblis et al (2016) found that 48.6% of Irish respondents and 24.3% of Welsh respondents directly refer patients for neuro imaging where they suspect dementia. However only a third of GPs expressed some confidence in selecting the appropriate neuro imaging modality and the majority lacked confidence in understanding neuro imaging in dementia. Very few had received training in this area and only one fifth of Irish and a third of welsh GPs had received any dementia specific training. The authors suggest further training in neuro imaging is required but also that the findings raise the question of whether GPs should be using direct referral for neuro imaging in dementia.

“We’re certainly not in our comfort zone”: A qualitative study of G.P.’s dementia – Care educational needs.

Foley, T., Boyle, S., Jennings, A. and Smithson, W.H.
BMC Family Practice
In this qualitative study Foley et al. (2017) explored the dementia educational needs of GPs from multiple perspectives; GPs, family carers and people with dementia.
The triangulation of data revealed a broader range of educational needs that included diagnosis, disclosure, management of behavioural and psychological symptoms, counselling, signposting to local services and supports. The latter two were highlighted by people with dementia and family carers. GPs were found to experience uncertainty in providing dementia care and decision making was found to be both complex and challenging. The results of this analysis have been used by the Primary Care, Education, Pathways and Research of Dementia (PREPARED) team to inform a series of GP workshops and to launch an educational website: